Response to Intervention Pyramid


The RTI Models

According to the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), "the application of RTI is typically understood within the context of a multi-tiered model or framework that delineates a continuum of programs and services for students with academic difficulties." No universally accepted model or approach currently exists. While the diagram provided to the right is the one most often used, it can vary to include additional tiers and categories depending upon individual needs and interpretations of the model. State agencies may select the RTI model they deem appropriate. However, policy dictates that the model should include data-based documentation of repeated assessment at reasonable intervals to reflect student improvement during instruction.


Universal screening and benchmarking of all students

  • Identify students at risk by conducting universal screening of academic performance and behavior
  • Provide class wide instruction in a general education setting that utilizes scientific/research-based teaching and intervention methods and continuously monitor progress


Identifying specific strengths and weaknesses and progress monitoring

  • Measure response to previous teaching and interventions
  • Administer CBM assessments and standardized psychoeducational measures, when appropriate, to pinpoint specific areas of difficulty among students who continue to struggle
  • Based on test results, tailor group or individual interventions that are progressively more challenging and monitor progress


Diagnostic testing and intensive progress monitoring

  • Measure response to ongoing intensive intervention
  • Administer comprehensive diagnostic assessments appropriate to individual needs to those who continue to show poor progress
  • Diagnose SLD based on test results and all other available information
  • Develop individualized educational plans and/or special education and related services and monitor progress
  • Include documentation that underachievement by a child suspected of having SLD is based on a processing disorder and is not due to the lack of appropriate instruction
Universal Screening and Benchmarking of All Students
Identifying Specific Strengths and Weaknesses and Progress Monitoring
Diagnostic Testing and Intensive Progress Monitoring